Biocommunication of Fungi


They take measures to control certain environmental resources. They process and evaluate information and then modify their behaviour accordingly. These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign aling -mediated communication processes within fungal cells intraorganismic , between the same, related and different fungal species interorganismic , and between fungi and non-fungal organisms transorganismic. Intraorganismic communication involves sign-mediated interactions within cells intracellular and between cells intercellular.

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This is crucial in coordinating growth and development, shape and dynamics. Such communication must function both on the local level and between widely separated mycelium parts. This allows fungi to coordinate appropriate response behaviors in a differentiated manner to their current developmental status and physiological influences. Biocommunication in Soil Microorganisms Gunther Witzany. Most of the activities that plants make with regard to growth and development require communication processes synapse-like communication between all parts of the plant.

Intercellular communication of plants: Short-distance communication differs considerably from long-distance communication. As a rule, both complement each other. Intercellular communication in the root zone in the soil differs from that in the stem region above ground. Both are necessarily coordinated with one another in order to enable life in these different habitats. Intercellular communication informs other plant parts about events in specific organs or regions of the plant especially in large plants , for example, sugar production in leaves, the reproduction in flowers and resource utilization by the roots[ ].

These connecting channels enable the flow of small molecules as well as ions, metabolites and hormones, and allow the selective exchange size exclusion limit of macromolecules such as proteins, RNAs and even cell bodies[ ]. The plasmodesmata impart plants with a cytoplasmatic continuum known as the symplasm[ , ].

But plasmodesmata are more than mere transport channels; they also regulate and control the exchange of messenger substances in a very complex manner[ ]. In symplastic signalling, the intercellular communication of plants differs fundamentally from that in other organismic kingdoms[ ]. It integrates various communication types such as local and long-distance communication. Beyond symplastic communication especially in the meristem, where new tissues are produced , plants also exhibit the receptor-ligand communication typical of animals[ ].

While receptor-ligand communication determines stomatal patterning in the epidermis of mature leaves, trichome patterning is mediated by symplastic signalling[ ]. For long-distance signalling movement, proteins play an important role. Movement proteins convey information bearing RNA, from the stem and leaves, to the remote roots and flowers. The movement protein allows the mRNA to enter the plasmodesmata tunnel, into the phloem flow.

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  5. Once it has entered this transport system, it can relatively rapidly reach all parts of the plant. These RNAs can control the levels of other proteins. The level contains information for local tissues, for example, about the general physical condition of the plant, the season, or the presence of dangerous enemies[ ]. Plasmodesmata are prerequisites for intercellular communication in higher plants[ ].

    In embryogenesis they are an important information channel between embryonal and maternal tissue. The further the development of the embryo, the more reduced the cell-cell communication between embryo and maternal tissue[ ]. Cell-cell communication via direct transmission of transcription factors plays a central role in root radial and epidermal cell patterning as well as in shoot organogenesis[ ].

    Bonke et al[ ] provide a particularly good example of communicative control of these 10 phases of embryogenesis. This confirms the presence of local signalling centers and the complex relationship between numerous different signalling pathways. A wounded plant organizes an integrated molecular, biochemical and cell biological response. This strategy enables information to be transported across great distances, for example, in tall trees[ ].

    Through their life cycles and their growth zones, plants develop a life history of environmental experience that they can pass on to later generations and, should they themselves grow to be several hundred years old, utilize themselves[ ]. Even small plants store stress experiences in their memories and then use these memories to coordinate future activities[ ]. Especially during growth, key information about the current status often takes a back seat to future-oriented processes, for example, early root growth and nutrient supply to secure future developments such as larger leaves.

    From this perspective, plants must plan for the future and coordinate growth, food uptake and communication with symbionts[ ]. The complementary differentiation of communication types into short-distance and long-distance signalling, with their different yet ultimately complementary tasks, requires cells to identify their position. They accomplish this by, among other things, detecting signals from neighboring cells[ ]. For example, signals from leaves trigger flower development at the tip of a plant. An entire network involving 4 different signal pathways regulates this transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase[ ].

    Most flowers bear closely adjoining male and female reproductive organs.


    Self-incompatibility is therefore crucial in distinguishing between own related and foreign non-related pollen. Intracellular communication of plants: Intracellular communication in plants takes place between the symbiogenetically assimilated unicellular ancestors of the eukaryotic cell, mainly between the cell body and cell periphery.

    It transforms and transmits external messages into internal messages that exert a direct epigenetic influence on the DNA storage medium and trigger genetic processes; this leads to the production of signal molecules that generate a response behavior. Via endocytosis, however, bacteria, viruses and viroids interfere with this intracellular communication and can support, disrupt or even destroy it.

    Intracellular communication offers viruses the opportunity to integrate certain genetically coded abilities of the host into their own genome or to integrate their own genetic datasets into the host genome. The ability of viruses to integrate different genetic datasets probably plays a major role in symbiogenetic processes. Interestingly, both the nucleus and viruses have several similar features and capabilities: There are also strong reasons to believe that the eukaryotic nucleus has a viral origin[ , ].

    Neuronal plasticity refers to the ability of neuron populations to alter either strengthen or weaken their connections based on experience. This is the basis for learning and memory. Like memory, long-term neuronal plasticity requires new RNA and protein synthesis. Accordingly, the signals must be transported from the synapse, from where they are sent, to the nucleus, where they are transformed to change the gene transcription. Then, the products of gene transcription proteins, RNAs must be sent back to the synapse in order to permanently change synaptic strength.

    This communication process is well described in animals[ - ]; if plants exhibit neuronal-like plasticity, then similar descriptions may follow. Reports on the transfer of mitochondrial genes between unrelated plant species caused some surprise. While gene transfer is an extremely rare event in animals and fungi, it is common amng plant mitochondria[ ]. Variations in repetitive DNA that manifest themselves as variation in the nuclear DNA complex have far-reaching ecological and life history consequences for plants[ ].

    The function of a eukaryotic cell depends on successful communication between its various parts. Plastids send signals to regulate nuclear gene expression and thus to reorganize macromolecules in response to environmental influences[ ]. It has been shown that micro-RNAs regulate certain developmental processes such as organ separation, polarity and identity, and that they define their own biogenesis and function[ ]. Eukaryotic genomes are regionally divided into transcriptionally active euchromatin and transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin[ ].

    Epigenetic changes are also reversible[ ]. Various stress situations in plants are known to cause transposon movements[ ], and bacterial infections or UV stress can cause chromosomal rearrangements[ , ]; i. Repetitive DNA is present in two syntactic combinations: Tandem repeats consist of sequences that can contain several thousand copies of elements that are dispersed throughout the genome. Pericentromeric sequences consist of a central repetitive nucleus flanked by moderately repetitive DNA. Telomeric and subtelomeric sequences consist of tandem repeats at the physical end of the chromosomes[ ].

    Retroelements and transposable elements are involved in replication and reinsertion at various sites in complex processes: Endocytosis and vesicle recycling via secretory endosomes are indispensable for many processes in multicellular organisms. Plant endocytosis and endosomes are important for auxin-mediated cell-cell communication as well as for gravitropic responses, stomatal movements, cytokinesis and cell wall morphogenesis. As in animals, synaptic cell-cell communication is based on rapid endocytosis and vesicular recycling in plants[ ]. Plants can overwrite the genetic code they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grandparents or great-grandparents[ - ].

    This contradicts traditional DNA-textbook convention that children simply receive combinations of the genes carried by their parents. Now a backup code has been found; it can bypass unhealthy sequences inherited from the parents and revert to the healthier sequences borne by their grandparents or great-grandparents. Research has shown that plants are able to replace abnormal parental code sequences with the regular code possessed by earlier generations.

    Does this require inheritance not only of the parental genetic make-up but also that of the grandparents and former ancestors? What is proposed is that higher-order regulation function in non-coding DNA, a type of genome-editing MetaCode[ 23 ], save ancestor genome structures, which overrule protein-coding DNA under certain circumstances such as stress.

    This means that the pragmatic situational context of the living plant body may induce epigenetic intervention on the genome-editing MetaCode; i. By initiating chromosomal methylation and histone-modifications, certain silencings, start and stops, and alternative splicing processes constitute alternative sequences. The result is that, in the existing genome architecture, the inherited parental sequences are not translated and transcribed but the backup copy of grandparents or great-grandparents is translated. Under normal conditions, the operative genetic make-up stems from the parents.

    This enables alternative splicing pathways; i. In contrast to animals and fungi, plants are the youngest organismic kingdom and perhaps the main success story of evolution. They arose approximately million years ago, and terrestrial plants, which flower and bear fruits a key prerequisite for feeding in larger animals , only developed million years ago. From an objective perspective, such immobility and the sessile life style must have been an advantage. Plants fundamentally depend on successful communication. The behaviour in the specific interaction can be misinterpreted.

    A plant can feign mutualism, for example, in order to gain a one-sided advantage from the interaction and to damage, permanently exploit or kill the partner. This, however, cannot be the representative form of communication because no individuals would survive if all plants behaved in this manner. The majority of interactions must be successful for several participants. Communication processes are successful when the rules governing sign use are correctly followed. Clearly, rules can be broken. In such cases, the messages transmitted via the signs are incomplete, incorrect, and induce no or a false behavioural response.

    Messages can also be misinterpreted. The sign user uses: Any constant rule-breaking blocks the organization of life processes communicative coordination of evolution, reproduction, growth and development within and between organisms. Integrating this biocommunicative perspective will help to more gradually decipher the specific meaning of the full range of semiochemicals in their broader sense and to become aware of the high level communicative competences of plants. In this paper, I demonstrated that life of the organismic kingdoms of bacteria, fungi and plants is far from being a mechanistic process of action and reaction similar to mere physical entities, but life in these organisms is organized and coordinated by communication processes.

    These communication processes function, in most cases, very conservatively and error free. Because they depend on syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules, additionally to natural laws, they may even fail or, in some cases, are error prone. But this flexibility is the precondition for invention, generation, combination or recombination of semiotic rules, which enable organisms to use available chemical molecules in a new way, to generate new sequences and create new sequence regulations.

    In contrast to non-animate nature, living nature depends on functioning semiosis[ ]. The communicative competences of organisms in these three organismic kingdoms share common features. They resemble transorganismic communication, interorganismic communication, intraorganismic inter- and intracellular communication. Additionally, any organism is able to distinguish whether the received chemical molecules are part of a n: Additionally to the semiotic rules of biocommunication rule-governed sign-mediated interactions , the biocommunicative approach investigates also the linguistic features of natural genetic engineering and natural genome editing.

    This is a crucial difference, because there are semiotic rules that determine sign use to generate a context-specific behaviour such as: The semiotic rules that determine the generation, combination, recombination or insertion of correct nucleic acid sequences have another context. Communicative interaction between organisms is another context, other than correct editing of nucleic acid sequences as I have outlined in another book[ 94 ].

    Therefore, successful biocommunicative processes are a precondition for both living organisms individuals are able to coordinate their behavior and for all editorial processes in the nucleic acid language; i. Without biocommunicative processes, prokaryotic organisms could not coordinate their behavior as multicellular organisms do, nor could real multicellular organisms like animals, fungi and plants live without rule-governed sign-mediated interactions between the cells of their body, and multicellular organisms could not coordinate their behaviour.

    National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. World J Biol Chem. Published online May Witzany G was responsible for all aspects of the study and manuscript preparation. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This article describes a coherent biocommunication categorization for the kingdoms of bacteria, fungi and plants. Trans-organismic communicative competence, Bacteria, Fungi, Plants. Open in a separate window. Levels of biocommunicative competences of bacteria, fungi and plants. Table 1 Evolutionary chronology of the 5 organismic kingdoms. Million of years ago Ribozymatic pre-cellular agents Prokaryotic microfossils bacteria, archaea Protoctist fossils unicellular eukaryotes Animal fossils Fungus fossils Plant fossils.

    Interpretation and coordination Bacteria have profound deleterious effects on human health, agriculture, industry and other ecospheres. Semiochemical vocabulary of bacteria The semiochemical vocabulary used by bacteria is diverse, especially because some signaling molecules are re-usable components[ 30 ]. Transorganismic communication of bacteria Starting with beneficial symbioses between bacteria and plants, we will consider the complex communication networks between soil bacteria, mychorrizal fungi and plant roots. Interorganismic communication of bacteria For a long time it was assumed that bacteria live predominantly as monads.

    Intraorganismic communication of bacteria Interestingly, prokaryotic gene order is not as conserved as protein sequences. Outlook Bacteria develop, organize and coordinate a great variety of behavioral patterns, which represents one of the most successful life histories of all the organismic kingdoms. Fungal lifestyles Different from most animals, fungi are sessile organisms that can live for extremely long periods or extend over large areas. Semiochemical vocabulary of fungi Since coordination and organizational processes occur in all organismic kingdoms, fungi are no exception.

    Interpretation of abiotic information Fungi react sensitively to varying nutrient availability and nutrient fluxes, responding by initial intraorganismic communication. Transorganismic communication of fungi One of the most striking trans-kingdom communication processes among fungi and non-fungal species can be found in lichens. Interorganismic communication of fungi with same or related species Since there are both single and multicellular fungal species, determination of communication processes between same species and related fungal species cannot be distinguished unambiguously from intercellular communication intraorganismic.

    Intraorganismic communication The countless variety of fungal organisms represents a major challenge when establishing a homogeneous designation of the sign processes employed. Outlook An overview about significant levels of fungal communication shows that identification of sign-mediated processes in signalling pathways are context dependent, both within and among fungal cells as well as between fungi and other organisms.

    Communicative competences of plants Highly diverse communicative competences of plants are possible due to parallel communication processes in the plant body intraorganismic , between the same and different species interorganismic , and between plants and non-plant organisms transorganismic. Semiochemical vocabulary of plants The chemical communication in and between plants is so complex that more than 20 different groups of molecules with communicatory function have currently been identified.

    Interpretation of abiotic influences Mechanical contact has an influence on the overall organism and on the cell level, both in plants and in other eukaryotes. Transorganismic communication of plants Sign-mediated interactions with organisms belonging to other species, genera, families and organismic kingdoms are vital for plants and are coordinated and organized in parallel.

    Interorganismic communication of plants Research has shown that plants can distinguish between damage caused by insects and mechanical injuries. Intraorganismic communication of plants As opposed to the central nervous system of animals, which controls metabolism and reactions centrally, the control in plants is decentralized[ ].

    Outlook In contrast to animals and fungi, plants are the youngest organismic kingdom and perhaps the main success story of evolution. From Umwelt to Mitwelt: Natural laws versus rule-governed sign-mediated interactions rsi's Semiotica. Ein Handbuch zu den zeichentheoretischen Grundlagen von Natur und Kultur.

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    Uniform categorization of biocommunication in bacteria, fungi and plants

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    Table of Contents: Biocommunication of fungi

    Bakers' yeast, a model for fungal biofilm formation. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Learn more about Amazon Prime. Fungi are sessile, highly sensitive organisms that actively compete for environmental resources both above and below the ground. They assess their surroundings, estimate how much energy they need for particular goals, and then realise the optimum variant.

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    4. They take measures to control certain environmental resources. They process and evaluate information and then modify their behaviour accordingly. These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign aling -mediated communication processes within fungal cells intraorganismic , between the same, related and different fungal species interorganismic , and between fungi and non-fungal organisms transorganismic. Intraorganismic communication involves sign-mediated interactions within cells intracellular and between cells intercellular.

      This is crucial in coordinating growth and development, shape and dynamics. Such communication must function both on the local level and between widely separated mycelium parts. This allows fungi to coordinate appropriate response behaviors in a differentiated manner to their current developmental status and physiological influences.

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